What is joint arthrosis? Causes and treatment of arthrosis

First, let's define what osteoarthritis is. Osteoarthritis, or arthrosis, is an articular disease in which the cartilage tissue of the interarticular surface is damaged. At the same time, not only articular cartilage is involved in the pathological process, but also ligaments, synovial membranes, periarticular muscles.

Arthrosis can be of two forms: localized, where one of the joints is affected (arthrosis of the foot, knee joint, etc. ), and general. The type of disease depends on the affected joint and is:

  • coxarthrosis (or hip);
  • gonarthrosis (or knee);
  • arthrosis of the distal interphalangeal joint (Heberd's node);
  • damage to the proximal interphalangeal joint;
  • polyosteoarthritis of the hand joints (Kelgen's disease);
  • shoulder arthrosis;
  • spondylarthrosis of the lumbosacral region;
  • arthrosis of the ankle (arthrosis of the foot).

The main symptoms of this disease are:

  • pain and disability
  • "dry" dryness in the joints,
  • reduced mobility (due to reduced joint space and muscle spasms around inflamed joints).

The joint may swell, the color of the skin on it changes (redness appears). In some cases, the temperature rises.

There are four degrees of the disease (according to some sources, only 3)

  1. In the first stage, the presence of a problem in the joint can be determined by the presence of irritation, tingling and accompanying pain. However, body temperature does not rise, swelling does not occur. It is advisable to start treatment from the early stages of disease development.
  2. In the second stage of disease development, there are visible changes. There is constant fatigue and a feeling of pressure in the affected area, which increases with physical exertion. Joint mobility is reduced.
  3. The third stage is accompanied by symptoms of severe pain that persists in the joint (even at rest). There is an increased sensitivity to weather conditions. The joints can fail completely, and the person becomes incapacitated.
  4. The fourth stage of the disease is the presence of constant severe pain, where strong drugs are powerless.

Read more about the symptoms and treatment of different types of osteoarthritis.

Symptoms and treatment of arthrosis of the hip joint

Symptoms of this disease are characterized by pain or just a pulling sensation in the groin, especially in the evening, after physical activity during the day. The unpleasant sensation quickly passed. However, if not treated in time, the pain becomes longer and more intense even with little effort. The patient begins to suffocate, trying to reduce the load on the inflamed organ. Movement becomes increasingly limited. With the progression of the disease, atrophy of the thigh muscles and shortening of the diseased limb occurs.

Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment can be done with or without surgical intervention (degree III-IV).

Naturally, the sooner the disease is diagnosed and appropriate treatment is started, the less likely the disease will progress and the patient will maintain a high quality of life.

So, in the initial stage (I and II), various drugs, special gymnastics, manual therapy and mandatory diet in such cases will help. The diet aims to reduce the patient's body weight to reduce the load on the joints (if there is a problem of excess weight, of course). It is also important to eat vegetables and fruits to supply the body with vitamins and minerals. Saturation with protein, which is the basis of any connective tissue, is a priority, so dairy products and legumes, jellies, low-fat jellies should be included in the diet.

Patients can be prescribed a course of acupuncture and physiotherapy, which, in addition to the aforementioned gymnastics, may include underwater massage, heat therapy, hydro and balneotherapy, electrotherapy. Orthopedic structures can be used (use of walking sticks, wedge-shaped pillows, lifting seats, orthoses).

Drugs prescribed to patients in the treatment of this disease (grade I-II):

  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. These drugs are designed to relieve pain in the groin and hips, not directly to treat the joints;
  • chondroprotectors. Medicines contribute to the restoration of the damaged cartilage structure of the joint and nourish the cartilage, i. e. intended for the treatment of joints;
  • Muscle relaxants are used to relieve muscle spasms. It should be used with caution, because often the body protects the joints from greater destruction.
  • ointments and creams. Aims to alleviate the patient's condition, but not for treatment.
  • medicine for injection into diseased organs. They are rarely used to relieve pain.

Manual therapy is the use of one of two methods. During mobilization, the doctor performs a gentle extension of the hip joint, in which the bones that articulate with each other are propagated. If everything is done correctly, the movement of the diseased organ is partially restored and the spasms are reduced. However, this technique is quite long (up to 15 procedures per year) and must be comprehensive, i. e. accompanied by drugs and other types of treatment.

The doctor performs the manipulation with the help of a single sharp movement, which brings immediate relief to the patient, however, this technique is effective in the early stages of the disease in combination with other treatment methods.

Surgical intervention is performed at the last stage of the disease. Various types of operations can be used, which depend on the specifics of the disease. Therefore, a joint-sparing operation is performed with a corrective osteotomy of the proximal femur and pelvis. Surgery to close the hip joint and surgery to replace the joint (or arthroplasty).

Arthrosis in the feet

It is possible to prescribe 2 types of deforming arthrosis of the foot: primary and secondary. Primary is characterized by the absence of a visible cause of the development of the disease and is considered genetic. Secondary arthrosis of the foot develops against the background of any disease (for example, flat feet) or injury.

Arthrosis of the foot joint is a general definition for ankle disease (foot arthrosis) and gonarthrosis. Symptoms and treatment of articular diseases of the feet (feet and knee) are discussed below.

Arthritis of the foot: what are the symptoms and how to treat

Symptoms are characterized by dryness in the ankles, pain when walking, which disappears during rest, limited joint mobility, swelling of the legs and redness of the skin on the joints, as well as atrophy of adjacent muscles. Often, the toe joints are affected. Osteoarthritis of the foot is diagnosed by X-ray.

Treatment of arthrosis of the foot, as well as the hip joint, can be surgical and non-surgical. Non-surgical methods include (in the early stages of the disease):

  • orthopedic shoes or the use of orthopedic insoles in comfortable shoes,
  • low heels in shoes (3-4 cm),
  • physiotherapy,
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
  • special medical gymnastics.

If foot arthrosis has reached stage II-III, analgesics can be prescribed and surgical intervention can be performed.

It is also important to follow a diet for overweight patients (to reduce the load on the leg joints). Shoes should be comfortable, with low heels and not restrict movement.

Medicines are needed to relieve pain and help regenerate cartilage in the affected joints.

Physiotherapy includes foot massage, therapeutic baths, infrared laser therapy, UV radiation, UHF therapy, magnetic therapy and ultrasound.

Surgical treatment methods can be:

  • arthrodesis, where there is rigid fixation of the diseased area,
  • arthroplasty, when the affected joint is surgically restored,
  • endoprosthetics - completely replacing a diseased joint with an artificial one.

Symptoms and treatment of knee osteoarthritis

As with other types of arthrosis, the symptoms of knee cartilage disease are mild pain during exercise, which disappears during rest. Knees may swell. Often occurs after leg fractures and dislocations.

Characteristic disturbances occur in stage II of the disease and are accompanied by pain. There is also limitation of joint mobility, fluid accumulation is possible.

Treatment includes medications and healing procedures:

  • ozone therapy as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent,
  • kinesitherapy is the performance of special exercises to increase the elasticity of ligaments and blood circulation,
  • take homeopathic medicine.

Treatment of arthrosis by folk methods

Of course, folk remedies should not be taken as a cure for serious diseases such as arthrosis. But in combination with the course of treatment prescribed by the doctor, folk remedies will speed up recovery.

lavender oil for arthritis
  1. To relieve painful symptoms, it is possible to use cabbage juice, in which a piece of natural wool is soaked and then a compress is made every evening. It is necessary to use cabbage juice within three days, after which it is necessary to make fresh.
  2. A compress is also made from a cabbage leaf, smeared with honey. We apply the smeared part to the joint, wrap it with cellophane film and wrap it warmly. We left it all night.
  3. To relieve the symptoms of arthrosis of the feet, white chalk or crushed eggshells and kefir are mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained, which is applied to the feet at night in the form of a compress. The calcium contained in this product increases blood flow and, thus, relieves pain and swelling.
  4. Oatmeal compresses also help reduce pain in joint arthrosis. To compress, it is necessary to cook a thick porridge, cool it, wrap it in a cloth and apply it to the sore spot overnight. You can use only once, then brew fresh.
  5. To relieve pain, you can prepare an oral drink. To do this, add 1 tablespoon to a glass of boiling water. l. olive oil and half a teaspoon of grated garlic. It should be taken 2 times a day when pain occurs.

Again, we note that the main thing is to treat arthrosis comprehensively and on time, to avoid serious complications and surgical intervention.