Causes of the development of stages and forms of arthrosis of the knee joint

Arthritis of the knee joint is progressive. With the development of the disease, the cartilage first suffers, then bone elements take part in the destructive process. High physical activity, physical inactivity, metabolic disorders lead to the cause of the problem.

As the disease progresses, there is a risk of ankylosis, which is accompanied by a decrease in the motor activity of the joint.

Characteristics of the disease

arthrosis knee pain

Arthrosis of the knee joint is accompanied by deformation and destruction of cartilage. The pathology is characterized by a chronic degenerative nature and causes pain of varying intensity.

It causes complete loss of motor activity and loss of function. According to ICD-10, this disease is coded as follows: M17. Gonarthrosis (arthrosis of the knee joint).

Pathology is more prone to women than men. At the same time, the risk of arthrosis is much higher in people with varicose veins and overweight. That is why this disease occurs more often in obese women who are over 40 years old. The elderly are also affected. In young people, arthrosis develops as a result of injuries that occur during physical work or sports activities.

Arthrosis should be distinguished from arthritis, which is an inflammatory disease caused by a disorder in the immune system. Infectious diseases also lead to the development of arthritis.

In the photo, a clinical picture of arthrosis

clinical picture of osteoarthritis of the knee


Arthritis of the knee joint has 2 main types - primary and secondary. In the first case, the disease appears in childhood and is caused by a violation of the development of the joint surface or ligaments.

In this situation, the joint is faced with an increased load, which leads to degenerative changes. Secondary forms of arthrosis are associated with injuries and other diseases.

Pathology can be unilateral or bilateral. In the first case, the cause of the disease is most often an injury. The bilateral form of the pathology is usually caused by obesity.

There are several stages in the development of arthrosis of the knee joint. The sooner the disease is detected, the easier it is to deal with it.

The main stages of the disease include the following:

  1. 1 degree- at this stage, people rarely go to the doctor. They feel some discomfort in the right or left knee, which appears after a long walk. Pain syndrome occurs only after increased physical exercise or strong knee flexion and extension. When performing radiography, it is possible to see a slight narrowing of the joint space and the appearance of bone processes in the joint structure. The pathology was discovered by chance during another examination. At this stage, conservative therapy is sufficient.
  2. 2 degrees- characterized by more obvious symptoms of the disease, which are difficult to ignore. Pain in the knee is always felt. It is very intense in the morning and evening. Even in a calm state, the discomfort did not go away. A person's gait slows down, motor activity is disturbed, movements in the knees are accompanied by cramps. There is a risk of complications accompanied by a piece of bone or cartilage entering the joint cavity. This causes increased pain and loss of motor activity. On palpation of the knee, there is a risk of severe pain and visible deformity of the joint. Often the inflammatory process develops. In such a situation, the knee swells. When performing an x-ray, you can see a strong narrowing of the joint space, the presence of osteophytes, bone curvature. In such cases, the patient needs complex treatment. In some cases, it is not possible to do without surgery.
  3. 3 degrees- represents a neglected form of pathology. At this stage, a person receives permanent disability. The patient has constant pain in the knee, impaired motor activity. With any movement, the knee throbbed strongly. The joint is characterized by a clear deformation, it increases in size due to the accumulation of fluid and almost completely loses mobility. When performing radiography, it is possible to see the destruction of ligaments and menisci apparatus, cartilage abrasion, and an increase in the size of connective tissue. Partial fusion of joints can also be observed. To solve the problem, the affected joint is replaced with an artificial one.

In most cases, patients go to the doctor at the second stage of arthrosis. This is typical for older people who are used to age-related changes.

Causes of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

injection in the knee joint with arthrosis

The main cause of osteoarthritis is a knee injury. Damage may be caused by exercise, arthritis or other factors.

The main causes of knee osteoarthritis include the following:

  1. Inflammation of the knee - the provoking factor can be arthritis, bursitis and other factors.
  2. Damage to the meniscus - if there is no treatment of such pathology, arthrosis often develops.
  3. Osteochondropathy of the knee.
  4. Physical factors - hard sports, overweight, etc.
  5. Fractures, post-traumatic syndrome.
  6. Operations for meniscus lesions, arthroscopy, long-term restrictions using hormones.
  7. Pathology that changes the load on the knee. These include flat feet, lower back lesions, arthrosis. Also included in this category is hip dysplasia.

Symptoms and signs

The main manifestations of this disease include the following:

  1. Pain - often there is mechanical discomfort, which is relieved by painkillers. It can be dull, painful, sharp.
  2. Crunchy while moving.
  3. Joint mobility is affected.
  4. Decreased motor activity.
  5. Limb muscle weakness.
  6. Increased local temperature in the knee area.
  7. Walking disorder, which is accompanied by lameness.
  8. Violation of stability.
  9. Tight knees.


deformation of the knee joint with arthrosis

Before starting the treatment of gonarthrosis, it is necessary to undergo a thorough examination.

If you suspect gonarthrosis, you should contact an orthopedic traumatologist. The specialist examines and interviews the patient, assesses the condition of the joint and the range of motion in it.

To identify pathology, conduct such studies:

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging. With the help of the procedure, it is possible to study the affected area by obtaining a three-dimensional image. Manipulation shows the vasculature and nerve fibers.
  2. Radiography. This procedure allows you to identify cracks, dents, bone processes.

What is dangerous knee arthrosis

Consequences of arthrosis include joint inflammation, atrophic changes in muscle tissue and ligaments, and impaired walking. There is also a risk of disability in the lower limbs.

In difficult situations, this disease causes complete degeneration of cartilage and deformation of the bone structure. As a result, the mobility of the limbs decreases, and the person becomes disabled.

knee arthroplasty for arthrosis

Prevention and prognosis

To prevent the appearance of knee arthrosis, you must adhere to the following recommendations:

  • eat right - the menu should contain a lot of vitamins, minerals, proteins;
  • get rid of bad habits;
  • normalize body weight;
  • go in for sports, walking or cycling exercise, doing medical complex;
  • avoid injury, protect your legs with knee pads.

The pathology corresponds to the therapy, because the thinning of the cartilage tissue is observed only in the third stage. The prognosis is quite favorable.

If therapy is not started on time, there is a risk of disability. Usually the group is assigned with the third degree of gonarthrosis. As for military service, they are exempted from it with the development of a deforming form of the disease.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is a serious pathology that leads to negative health consequences. To overcome this problem, you need to consult a doctor in time. Specialists will carry out the necessary studies and choose the appropriate therapy.